The Changing Winds Advocacy Center is a Native American civil rights and education agency that aims to provide a “deeper understanding of the Native experience both in education, in the workplace…and indeed, in the world.” Teaching Tolerance magazine. So they were removing Indigenous peoples from the Americas and sending them out to the Caribbean, Europe and as far away as Asia. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: The Indians’ Discovery of Columbus Interactives. One is idea of an interactive timeline or a 3D model of the different timelines that the different players in the war are navigating. Use these resources to help students contextualize the true history and contemporary issues of Native peoples. From the Indigenous peoples whose lands it decided to set up on. Never miss a Moment. It really almost destroys colonial South Carolina and it changes the Indian slave trade in the South forever. It often translates as “one who is owned.”. Native Americans of New England: Key Concepts For Teaching Native American Histories Websites Educators use our materials to supplement the curriculum, to inform their practices, and to create civil and inclusive school communities where children are respected, valued and welcome participants. So, they’re really starting to lose control over their participation in this trade and to see how abusive and how destructive it can be. So basically the idea of someone who has not been incorporated into a kinship network, that person is permanently an outsider and they’re thought of as being kinless. So we see the ways that this concept that starts as a European religious idea, comes and travels to the United States and its origins and becomes this really foundational and shaping idea that impacts everything else about how the legal system functions for Indigenous peoples in the United States today. So Europeans have this idea that slavery can be passed down indefinitely through, especially the maternal line, is how they begin to define it. Just because of the devastation of colonialism, those numbers were much greater, we think, before the European invasion. It really devastates the Florida mission system. We should be thinking about the starting point for slavery in the Americas, if you will, at a totally different moment in time. One of the big ideas that Doctor Snyder has researched is that Indigenous peoples had certain ideas about bondage and captivity that predate the invasion of Europeans. Europeans are coming in and they’re certainly disrupting dynamics, especially in what come to be known as the colonies, but Indigenous peoples largely are still able to maintain pre-existing relationships with each other and relationships with their lands. What we have to understand about this and what makes it so important in Indigenous societies is that kinship was really the organizing principle of creating Native societies. Columbus captured 550 Indigenous peoples, carried them back to Spain. We’re going to talk about contemporary impacts that have ripples over time of the Indigenous slave trade for Indigenous peoples today. Meredith McCoy: You mentioned Columbus. Historian Christina Snyder tells the story of what happened when these worlds collided. They believe that the only way to really gain a foothold in this global market to gain access to firearms is to engage in the Indian slave trade. So Native people become consumers in this global market. Hasan K. Jeffries: There’s so much history there. Native Americans have been the subject of racial stereotypes and exploitation in white American culture and enterprise throughout the nation's history. So you can see both the economic pull of this, but also that desire for security, in a really violent and changing world. When he was marketing them to potential buyers, he actually compared them to West Africans. I also come from a family of educators. To continue, log into your Teaching Tolerance account. The first is by taking them directly. Colonists themselves are really terrified and they have seen how the Indian slave trade has destabilized the region, has really invoked the military power of Native nations, which still outnumber them and nearly destroyed the colony. I’ll see you on the other side. Teaching Tolerance provides free teaching materials that include over 100 texts, sample inquiries and a detailed K–12 framework for teaching the history of American slavery. That point that was made about, labor is a scarce resource, and those European colonizers who were coming in, they are desperate for this free labor and are using this system, obviously, to tap into labor sources. McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University. Native Americans are a vital and living part of our countries’ history and future and this lesson seeks to honor their voices and perspectives in order to confront, discuss and challenge the erroneous history and stereotypes of the classic Thanksgiving story. One helps us to understand the other. Bryan Fischer, the director of issue analysis for government and public policy at the American Family Association (AFA), has expanded his astounding bigotry to include not just Muslims and LGBT people, but Native Americans as well.. It’s also a very different approach than the sometimes coverage model of just focusing on people, places, events, dates, battles, and it allows students to see this conflict in its holistic environment over time. So I’m excited to come on board. To continue, log into your Teaching Tolerance account. It might be interesting for you to also speak to the relationship between Christianity and European understandings of human dignity, particularly given what you were just discussing about understandings of Christianity in religious wars. Hasan K. Jeffries: Meredith, obviously this is 2019 and we have been commemorating the 400th anniversary of the arrival of enslaved Africans to the Virginia colony, British North America. Meredith McCoy: There is so much that is so exciting and interesting about what you’ve just shared. In this activity, students will explore the perspectives of two Native American authors about the meaning of the Thanksgiving holiday and then write journal entries. The Native American perspective "Young children's conceptions of Native Americans often develop out of media portrayals and classroom role playing of the events of the First Thanksgiving. The first is that it’s trans-generational. So a few years before the Yamasee War starts, they’re 100,000 deer skins in debt to Carolina, which is really about twice of South Carolina’s annual export. Christina Snyder: This is really the moment in Southern history when enslavement becomes really associated with the African trade and enslaving people of African descent. When we think about major colonizing powers in North America, three of the most important are Spain, England and France. Nobody really knows what that means. European colonies, like Virginia and South Carolina, New England, even in New Mexico, they’re beginning to be strongholds of European settlement and pushing out Native people. So it’s a form of colonialism that imagines Native people as being absent, disappearing, as having no role in the future of their society. It wasn’t part of my development and my master’s in education, it wasn’t part of my standards or textbooks in Tennessee or Georgia, and it also was not part of the education I received as a student myself, growing up in North Carolina. The survivors are forced to go back to the mission system in Florida. When they’re engaging in these wars during the Reconquista, they employ ideas based on what they thought of, as a quote, “just war.”. More states are including American Indians in their mainstream curricula. As you’re building out these timelines, the individual timelines will eventually intersect at specific historical moments so that you’ll start to see the development of a 3D mobile or a 3D model that allows your students to see how these different interests are overlapping and coming in and out of play with each other. Following the Yamasee War, British colonists really increasingly associate slavery with blackness. These allies have varying roles in the war. I also wanted to ask you, you’ve written that colonialism brought distinct and evolving notions of bondage into contact with one another. Again, well if we had to sum up their ideas about captivity, one is that it’s not racial, it’s really more about kinship and social fabric. Meredith McCoy: We continue today to feel the impacts of Indigenous enslavement in so many ways. From college dorm rooms to black barber shops and beauty salons. They had armor. What this history forces us to do is reckon with the myriad experiences depending on location and time. All of the other remaining settlers and enslaved people are forced into fortified Charleston for most of the remainder of the war. Part of the reason why is that they very rightly see that they’re living in an unsafe world. Meredith McCoy: In the second part of the interview, we’re going to move forward in terms of time. Meredith McCoy & Hasan K. Jeffries: And we’re your hosts for Teaching Hard History: American Slavery. Hasan K. Jeffries: Now you had a chance to interview Doctor Christina Snyder. We often talk, and rightly so, a lot about conflict early in the colonial period. Outside of Native American circles, the expedition is almost universally called the "Corps of Discovery." If we look at the places of heaviest colonial invasion, so those would be the South and also New England, in the West, what you see are pretty intense Spanish colonization of New Mexico. So essentially if we look at these different colonizing powers, they too have their own cultures and histories, but they’re beginning to form a more coherent ideology that justifies bondage. Teaching Tolerance Five lesson ideas from Education World. What are these notions of bondage that Europeans are bringing with them? A Racial Justice Guide to Thanksgiving . Teaching Tolerance: Lessons Learned in Teaching Native American History: Indian Law Resource Center: Native American Rights Fund: For Librarians (AND Teachers) Creating a Library Atmosphere that Welcomes American Indians: Board Books: Top Books for Elementary: Top Books for High School: Native people are beginning to become the minorities in their own homelands and they have a number of different grievances against these colonial powers of which, forced labor or slavery is one. Christina Snyder: One thing that we have to understand first is that Native North America is incredibly diverse on the eve of colonization. In this way, they can see the multifacetedness of the war itself and they can see both what leads up to it and how it then reverberates into other historical events that come after. In response, Teaching Tolerance developed a framework and a set of recommendations for teaching about American slavery for students in grades 6-12. In both instances, I’m really struck by this idea of Indigenous populations, whether they are Indigenous nations here, African people on the continent of Africa, are in a sense saying, “Okay, in what ways can we incorporate these new people into our existing way of life?”. A widely held tenant was that captivity was a kind of substitute for death in warfare. At the same time, the war itself doesn’t actually liberate Indian people who are already in slavery. European gun manufacturers actually start to mass-produce these for an American market and primarily for Native American people who want to use these. When it comes to Native American history and culture, many textbooks are light on relevant content. Even though it’s not entirely effective. “We should know … Could you tell us a little bit about why it’s important for our listeners to hear what she has to say? So they might, for example, have to serve a particular chief who had conquered them without being fully incorporated into the kinship structure. The only place where there’s some evidence for that is on the northwest coast, the Pacific Northwest in the 18th and 19th century, but it’s not a widespread idea. Could you pivot a bit perhaps and speak to why they could not just keep doing captivity in the ways that they always had? That really reshapes the way that slavery looks in the region. Their trajectories were altered forever. It seems that the Yamasee War really reflects this idea of Indigenous people being ensnared in this system of enslavement, the system of capitalism, the system of debt and trying desperately to extricate themselves from it and taking proactive steps in the form of going to war to get out from under it. I think many of us were trained as history teachers to teach the colonial era, and then the idea of colonization sort of disappears. We’re going to continue this conversation in our next episode, starting with some insightful perspectives on the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation. They to continue to engage in the Indian slave trade. Christina Snyder: Yeah, so one of the key things, key takeaways I hope from this conversation, is that slavery is really dynamic. Meredith McCoy: Thank you for that. Since that, we have really focused on how dynamic slavery was, how many different groups of people it affected, where it was? Christina Snyder: Many Indigenous nations actually do try to maintain traditional ideas as much as they can in terms of how native people are engaging with the warfare around them. So as your students are building out these graphic organizers on the ground, they start to draw connections between their ideas and how they’re connecting to the other ideas or pressures that both lead up to the conflict and then that radiate out from it. So, shouldn’t we cast equal blame on Indigenous peoples [as] on European colonists or European settlers?”. How do we get this mesh of Christian ideology and legal concepts that then justify the enslavement of peoples from Africa and the Americas? The Yamasees become very much in debt to these traders. That just gives us a sense of the dissonance of this and how people who couldn’t even understand the words, because they’re in a different language, would have been impacted by these legal ideas that originated in Europe that just really did not recognize Native rights to self-governance or to territory. As you gather books and other resources about native peoples, consider how these texts can be used in lesson plans. Talking with students about slavery can be emotional and complex. They feel like if they don’t get access to firearms, that they themselves will become victims of either European colonizers or more powerful Native neighbors. Teaching Culturally Sensitive Holidays – Sherry Posnick-Goodwin (California Teachers Associations) Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way – Teaching Tolerance; Teaching Thanksgiving from the Perspective of Native Americans – Christina “Krea” Gomez ; Lesson Plans/ Study Guides. Teaching Tolerance Classroom Activities from Tolerance.org Many excellent activities for a variety of subjects and lesson plans. Meredith McCoy: Yeah, that’s absolutely right. — "Native American Mascots Big Issue in College Sports", Teaching Tolerance, May 9, 2001 While many universities and professional sports teams (for example, the Cleveland Indians , who had a Chief Wahoo ) no longer use such images without consultation and approval by the respective nation, some lower-level schools continue to do so. That really stands out. Hasan K. Jeffries: One of the things that really leaps out when I think about the history of the Yamasee War is that as teachers, we really have to take seriously Native nations as political thinkers. Teaching Tolerance: How State Standards Represent Indigenous Peoples Instructional Content. In each episode we explore a different topic, walking you through historical concepts, raising questions for discussion, suggesting useful source material and offering practical classroom exercises. Why is it that Indigenous peoples really feel that they have to adopt these European notions of the slave trade? They are not simply waiting for things to happen to them. I think part of the importance of including Indigenous enslavement in how we teach the history of American slavery is that it does change so much about how we understand timeline and geography. Meredith, how are you? That’s why many of them become interested in buying and selling Indigenous captives. 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